The History of Frisbee and Disc Sports


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Guts Frisbee History

The Counterculture and Early Frisbee Pioneers

“People view it as a novelty often, but if you take away the Frisbee and replace it with a ball, it’s really difficult.” – Brandon Leshchinskiy

In the 1960s, as numbers of young people became alienated from social norms, they resisted and looked for alternatives. They formed what became known as the counterculture. The forms of escape and resistance manifest in many ways including social activism, alternative lifestyles, experimental living through foods, dress, music and alternative recreational activities, including that of throwing a Frisbee.


Ken Westerfield counter-culture Frisbee and disc sports pioneer from the 1960s and 70s

The perceptions of the Frisbee being popular within the countercultural community probably came from seeing long-hair young people throwing Frisbees in the parks, on campus and at music festivals in the 1960s. Also in the early 1970s, when new Frisbee sports and events were being invented, it could be perceived that these new sports were being invented as an alternative to traditional ball sports. All of these early perceptions would turn out to be true. The idea that these were non-athletic hippie types that couldn’t play traditional ball sports is false, most were former athletes, that had an athletic past in ball sports and happened to have a certain 60s style, that included long hair and anti-establishment attitude. The only difference with the athletes that play disc sports and the athletes that play traditional ball sports is not their athleticism, but disc athletes strict self-imposed philosophy and attitude towards sportsmanship. With yesterday and today’s disc athlete, winning is not as important as is how you play the game. Although you hear that for all sports, you rarely see it in ball sports and when you do, it’s the exception. Disc sports like ultimate, the most competitive team game, actually give awards for it.

“All players are responsible for administering and adhering to the rules. Ultimate relies upon a Spirit of the Game that places the responsibility for fair play on every player. It is trusted that no player will intentionally break the rules; thus there are no harsh penalties for breaches, but rather a method for resuming play in a manner which simulates what would most likely have occurred had there been no breach. Highly competitive play is encouraged, but should never sacrifice the mutual respect between players, adherence to the agreed-upon rules of the game, or the basic joy of play”.——Spirit of the Game (SOTG).

“Spirit of the Game” wasn’t invented by any one person or group, it was created by the counterculture and alternative playing appeal of all the disc sports, including ultimate.  SOTG is not just about the lack of referees, it is a “conduct of play”. The lack of referees and self-dispute settling are the results of this code of conduct. Although this conduct extends to all disc sports, the rule was first recognized in ultimate and included into the 7th edition of the Official Rules for Ultimate in 1978.

First Frisbee and Disc Sports Athletes 1960s – 1973

By the early ’1970s, Victor Malafronte and John Weyand of the Berkeley Frisbee Group (BFG) had raised Frisbee tossing and catching to a delicate art form of flowing throws and receptions. In Toronto, Ken Westerfield and Jim Kenner, were doing the same thing with fast flowing routines and were already touring as Frisbee Professionals performing in cities across Canada. Ken and Jim introduced their first freestyle event in 1973 at the 2nd Canadian Open Frisbee Championships but due to the lack of competitors, it was canceled. Vaughn Frick, John Sappington, and Scott Dickson were doing creative trick throws and fancy Frisbee catching on the campus of the University of Michigan during that same period of time. Dan Roddick included a freestyle-like game called “Eastern Trick Catch” at his Pennsylvania and New York State Frisbee Championships. Freestyle play prior to 1975, before the invention of the nail-delay, was a fast-moving and flowing routine of many throwing variations with spinning and leaping stylized catches off the throw. Early freestyle play was intense and commonly compared to martial arts and dance.
jjThe IFA Newsletter was instrumental in bringing all three of these groups together in one way or another. It led Victor Malafronte to the 1973 Canadian Open Frisbee Championships in Toronto where he met Ken Westerfield and Jim Kenner. In response to meeting Victor, Ken trekked out to the West Coast later that year to meet and play Frisbee with the Berkeley Frisbee Group (BFG) players. They exchanged volumes of information about Frisbee styles, techniques, and activities. The IFA and its newsletter helped the University of Michigan guys get in contact with the Humblies Guts team and to get involved with the IFT, where they met even more Frisbee players like John Connelly, Alan Blake, and Tom Cleworth of the Highland Avenue Aces guts team. The exchange of ideas about creative throwing and catching grew substantially during this 1968-1973 period of time.
In 1973, Dan “Stork” Roddick met Spyder Wills at Laguna Beach for some Frisbee play and was highly influenced by the graceful and beautiful style that Spyder demonstrated.

Early Frisbee Play and First Disc Sports Competitions 1968-1973

The first known instance of a flying disc sport was disc golf, invented in Canada, in the early 1900s. The first game was held in Bladworth, Saskatchewan, Canada in 1926. Ronald Gibson and a group of his Bladworth Elementary School buddies played a game of throwing tin lids into 4 foot wide circles drawn into sandy patches on their school grounds. They called the game Tin Lid Golf and played on a fairly regular basis. However, after they grew older and went their separate ways, the game came to an end. We don’t have the historical connecting dots from Tin Lid Golf 1926 to the beginning of modern disc golf, but it doesn’t mean they were not there. For all we know, someone from Bladworth Tin lid Golf may have moved to the East Coast of the U.S. for whatever reason and started the pie tin tossing at Yale and other ivy league universities, we just don’t know. Since the first disc golf (Tin Lid Golf) was played in Bladworth, it wasn’t until the 1970s that modern disc golf would be introduced to Canadians at the Canadian Open Frisbee Championships in Toronto and the Vancouver Open Frisbee Championships in Stanley Park, Vancouver, BC. Disc golf is now played in over 40 countries with a popular PDGA semi-professional tour.

The November 1969 “All Comers” meet in Brookside Park in Pasadena, California, advertised a “Style throwing and catching” activity area and also a “Free exercise” activity area in addition to the other more traditional Frisbee events like guts, distance, and accuracy.


Tom Field, Al Bonopane, Foothill Gut’s Team

There were a few guts and distance tournaments in the 1960s, but the birth and history of Frisbee and disc sports competitions began in the early 1970s in Canada and the US. Disc sports were being invented, developed and promoted in both countries during the same period. Canada has shown that despite population differences, Canada has always been competitive at the highest level against the U.S. and the World.

Dan Roddick

Dan “Stork” Roddick, IFA and NAS Director for Wham-O.

The IFA Newsletter made its debut in 1968 and brought together previously isolated and undocumented pockets of disc play. Stories of Frisbee activities, including stories about people who could throw a Frisbee in different ways and could make fancy trick catches began to circulate. There were stories of the legendary Spyder Wills from Laguna Beach, whose floating throws and fancy catches were unlike what anyone else could do with a Frisbee. The Frisbee community found out about the big International Frisbee Tournament (IFT) gut’s Frisbee competitions in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, Ken Westerfield and Jim Kenner’s Canadian Open Frisbee Championships in Toronto, Dan Roddick’s Pennsylvania State Championship events, and Wham-O’s National Junior Championships.

Frisbee, Disc Sports, Early Multi-Frisbee Event Tournaments 1972-1976

“When a ball dreams, it dreams it’s a Frisbee” – Stancil Johnson

The earliest competitions using the Frisbee in a sport was at the International Frisbee Tournament (IFT) in Michigan, in the late 1950s. The foundation for the beginning of all the disc sports were the early player pioneers and their multi-event tournaments of that time. The Canadian Open Frisbee Championships (1972-1985) in Toronto is the next oldest gut’s tournament to the IFT and along with the Vancouver Open Frisbee Championships (1974-1977), Vancouver, BC, the Octad (1974), New Brunswick, New Jersey, the American Flying Disc Open, AFDO (1974), Rochester, NY and the WFC (1974) Rose Bowl, Pasadena, CA, were the earliest Frisbee multi-event competitions that treated the Frisbee as a new disc sport. Organized disc sports, began with promotional efforts from Wham-O (U.S.A.) and Irwin Toy (Canada), a few tournaments and professionals using Frisbee show tours to perform at universities, fairs and sporting events.  Gut’s and freestyle was the first Frisbee events and play to demonstrate the athletic possibilities of using the flying disc in sports. The early competitions and touring freestyle show tours of performing freestyling Frisbee athletes were the beginning of exhibiting new disc sports in Canada and the U.S.

In the mid-1970s, several player Frisbee publications became available, like Flying Disc Magazine, for the purpose of communicating everything that is Frisbee and disc sports. The IFT guts competitions in Northern Michigan, the Canadian Open Frisbee Championships (1972), the Vancouver Open Frisbee Championships (1974), the Octad (1974) and the AFDO (1974), became the first annual flying disc competitions. This was the beginning of an introduction of all the disc sports including freestyle, disc golf, ultimate and double disc court (DDC) as well as an array of individual Frisbee power disciplines like distance, MTA and TRC. Beginning in 1976, Frisbee World Magazine with Dan “Stork” Roddick as the editor, provided tournament dates, finishes, stories and was instrumental in providing the information needed for the early growth of Frisbee and flying disc sports.

Pioneers – First Events – Organizations

There are certain people and events that stand out when acknowledging who laid the groundwork for the transition of playing with the Frisbee as a toy to disc sports.


Jim Palmeri, Frisbee and disc golf pioneer.

The Healy family (guts and IFT), Ken Westerfield (ultimate, freestyle, disc golf , distance, Canadian Open and Vancouver Open Frisbee Championships), Jim Kenner (Discraft, disc golf, freestyle, Canadian Open and Vancouver Open Frisbee Championships), Jared Kass, Joel Silver, Tom Kennedy and Irv Kalb (ultimate and UPA), Dave Marini (FPA), Jim Palmeri (AFDO, disc golf and DDC), Dan Roddick ( Octad, WFC, Frisbee World and WFDF), Ed Headrick (Wham-O, IFA, WFC, and disc golf), Tom Monroe (Frisbee South, tournaments and disc golf). These were Frisbee and disc sports pioneers that not only excelled with the Frisbee when it was still considered a toy but help create the formats and concepts through their own tournaments and organizations that produced the events and organizations of disc sports we see today. USA Ultimate, Ultimate Canada, World Flying Disc Federation, Professional Disc Golf Association, Freestyle Players Association are the official rules and sanctioning organizations for today’s flying disc sports.

Players Organizations and media resources: USA Ultimate | Ultimate Canada | PDGA | WFDF | Freestyle Players Association| FrisbeeGuru | Ultimate Rob

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Erwin Velasquez-Jo Cahow-Jens Velasquez, 1976.

Next Articles:

History of Disc Sports in Canada
History of Ultimate Frisbee
Ultimate Frisbee History in Canada
Disc Golf History in the U.S. and Canada
Freestyle Frisbee History
Guts Frisbee History

Note: This information was referenced and time-lined from disc sport historical and biographical articles including U.S. and Canadian Disc Sports Hall of Fame inductions, Disc Sports Player Federations and other historical resources. This article was researched, written and compiled by Frisbee and disc sports historians. The history in this document may change as events and people are added. Linking or reproducing in whole or part is permitted. For more information contact:

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